Tuesday, December 25, 2018

Happy Christmas!

When I was a  kid, watching Swiss Family Robinson, I heard the dad say, "Ernst, Happy Christmas!"  That seemed to make more sense to me than Merry Christmas.   I adopted it as my normal greeting....  It stumps folks, too.  Makes their thought process clank up.  I love it.

Christmas this morning was sweet.  Sound asleep when my grown daughter comes running in, "Wake up, it's CHRISTMAS!!!"  "I've been up since six!!"

She came over to celebrate...  What a great kid!

My turn to open my present, and I see this under the paper.......

Can you say "Oh Baby!"

My mouth dropped open, and I stalled out.  My thought process clanked up.  "Heavy box, and it's a Brown & Sharpe?!?!?!?!"

My wife and daughter conspired together this year.  My daughter says, "I looked all over trying to figure out what to get you.  I looked on blogs and threads all over the internet.  Most said don't buy anything, just give them a gift card.  Then I saw this.  I didn't remember seeing one in your shop, so, Merry Christmas!!"

Oh my gosh.......

A thing of beauty is a joy forever!

Satin Chrome, NOS, even has the scribe!!!  How cool is that!

I sent her a video from MrPete222 last year talking about how to buy gifts for a mechanic / machinist / hobby-ist.  And she took it to heart.  My wife got a bit stuck, so she and my daughter worked together to find the perfect thing.  I like Starrett tools, but B&S are my favorites.  How in the world.....

Looking past a want to a need is a very special thing.  That takes knowledge and wisdom.  As you enjoy today, remember that God Himself did that for us.  That's the reason for the season.  Looking past our wants, to what we really needed.  A gift that makes someone into what he was created to be.  As someone who makes stuff almost everyday, that really speaks to me.   I see a block of material, I remove all the stuff that covers the part, and there it is.  What I designed, laid out on the block, machined away the swarf to see and to ultimately use.  Now, it's not a big block of metal, it's a useful part.  Designed and accurately made for a specific purpose.  In the Bible, there is a verse which really illustrates that.  Ephesians 2:10 - For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.  Yup, Jesus came to take me and make me something that was fit to do what He wants me to do.  He is The Master Machinist.

Happy Christmas!!

Wednesday, December 12, 2018


You found that old LeBlond lathe, or Clausing drill press.  Where do you find the manual that didn't come with it?   That is an important question.  I've found myself there almost everytime I've purchased a machine tool.

When it comes to digging for obscure, obsolete, or just vintage instruction manuals, Google is our friend.  I normally have other words for it, but it is an important tool.

the second mill I bought

I usually start out broad, then add pdf in the search box:  "Clausing drill press pdf"  also use the model number if possible:  "leblond regal manual pdf".  If you get a lot of hits, then start refining the terms.

These are the spot's I've found that have the most information:

Keith Rucker's Vintage Machinery.  Tons of good stuff in there.

Lathes.com in the UK has a ton of good info as well.

Blogs sometimes do a good job of detailing work, with pictures!  My favorite example.  My Clausing drill documentation is basically the blog printed out, with a manual I found online.  I made detailed measurements and recorded the bearing sizes in the book.

Sometimes, you have to buy them.  Like from this guy.  He also sells on ebay.  He has a lot of manuals. 

Last is the manufacturer.  Most of them don't have the info any longer, sometimes they do, but their cost can be prohibitive.  Logan lathes is an exception to this.

Fortunately I got this manual before it disappeared, like Enco

If you get totally skunked, look for the patent numbers, then dig up the drawings.  Using map colors, you can identify the component lines to figure out how it goes together.

Yeah, I have a couple reams of paper just waiting to be used.

I print mine out and then bind them with a comb binding.  That way, if I discover more stuff, like a sales flier with options or accessories, then I can stick them in with the rest of my information.  It goes from being a manual to being documentation.  That's allowed me to find accessories for the old world war two LeBlond that I didn't know existed.

A wealth of info in out of print books.

But wait!  There's more!!!  Google books has lots of out of print books scanned in and ready to download.  I print those out if I need them.  I'm old school.  I like to have something in my hand I can take notes on.  These comb bound books do that for me.  I recently added a pc in the shop, but don't have all my library on it yet.

More to follow....

Monday, December 3, 2018

It's Time for a Film!

Did you get to watch 16 mm films in school?

Were you the fourth grader that figured out how to loop the film so the sound and picture were in sync?  Were you the one that knew how to focus the lens?  Were you the one the teacher called on for help?  Did she finally give up and just ask you to load it, run it, rewind it and return it to the AV room?  Did you get one of these when everyone else was getting straight A's, or never tardy, or 100% attendance awards at school?

Yup, I have one.  6th Grade awards ceremony.  For 3 years of stellar technical service.
I guess it was inevitable that I'd be interested in mechanics, electronics and anything that required tools to keep functioning.

It's time for a film.....  

I learned a lot from watching this.  I hope you find these interesting.  I sure do.  (There may be a pop quiz)

Saturday, December 1, 2018

Quickie Tool Intro

Okay, there is a Quality Assurance tool called an optical comparator.  They are usually really big and expensive.  I mean EXPEN$IVE.   Also known as a shadow graph.

Take a look, I'll wait right here.....

Optical Comparators   (Thanks, bitly.com!)

As I understand them, you place a calibrated transparent chart  on the thing, put your part on a stand (the focal length is exact, so the scale of the chart is accurate), then QA the geometry and/or dimensions of the part.  The part is magnified and the chart is superimposed. Too cool, and too big for me.

Then I ran across this guy:

The Tool and Die Guy

He introduced me to a nice bunch of tools, including...........

The pocket comparator:

Oh yeah!
I didn't even know I needed one before watching him!!  But this a most useful tool.  Need to check a radius?  No sweat!  How about an angle? Yup.  And it's got a ruler,  small circles, everything I could imagine needing.

A bit shadowy, but it's all there.

Ye olde radius gage.  Is it accurate??

Yes, it is what is says it is.  Perfect.

Meet the pocket comparator.  It allows me to be more precise when I grind tool bits, and check if I'm holding my tolerances like I should.  I am definitely impressed.  Now if I can find the instruction sheet that didn't come with it....

Making Do

I mentioned Mr. Garcia, and his "milling machine".  A significant portion of commenters, like a 100%, wanted to see more of it.  I haven't uncovered it in a while...

Dang, even covered up, there isn't much protection a hundred miles from the gulf coast.  What a swamp.... Our normal weather is hot, mostly 40% to 75% humidity in the summer (March to October).  The winter is wicked for tools stored outside.  We'll get a strong south wind, with a lot of sticky humidity just before a cold front will come in.  A few days of nice cool and dry, then the front backs up as a warm front.  Anything with mass will still be cold, and start sweating like iced tea in summer.  If you haven't swabbed down the bare metal, you are in for a race against rust.  My rust proofing on this tool didn't survive the summer.   Another project for the list....

Okay, here's the mods on this old tool.

Attachment point:

Set at the perfect angle to be sqare to the axis of the chuck.

So, Mr. G fabbed up this square tube, and made angle iron brackets for it.  This is set square to the axis of the quill.

Quill support:
I wonder if those are skateboard bearings?

This beauty is a square tube that nests inside the one above.  It has a plate attached, loaded with bearings.  This supports the quill from lateral forces when you use it as a mill.  Brilliant.

Bearing ring installed:

Looking from the front.
And from the left

These bearings fit right on the chuck.  In spite of this, there is significant wear on the quill.  It's a bit floppy.  It could be, he added this to fix the floppy quill.  But I'm sure he used it as a mill as well.  There used to be an X Y table on it.

Table lift:

He added this bracket, with a crank handle.  That is a bike chain attached to the table, and has a small counterweight to keep the chain from jumping off the sprocket.  Very neat.

Quick belt changer:

He engineered a pivot for the motor.  This allowed quick belt / pulley changes for different speeds.  Normally, this would be a solid rod.  The weight of the motor pulls it tight.  The pulleys are off square a little, but the vee belt doesn't care.  It works perfectly.

Here is what it looked like stock:


I'll start taking it apart next spring for a de-rust and freshen it up a bit.  Provided I get all my winter projects done.  Winter comes on a Tuesday and lasts most of a whole week.  Not much time to get a long list of to-dos, to-done..

Thursday, November 29, 2018

Upcoming projects

I've been whipped after getting home after work.  Not sure if it is the constant swings between 80 and 40 degrees this winter, or I'm just outta gas.

Preview of coming attractions:

I need a 2 inch spacer for the power feed on the mill:

I love a fly cutter finish!

This is Mr. Garcia's drill press, details to follow:

When I took off the tarp, my heart sank...

A new tool!!!!!  Yes, Mr. Pete, 3 new tools a week is 300% better than 1 new tool a week....  And Mr. Tool and Die Guy, I didn't even know I needed one of these:

Oh baby!!

My pillow is calling my name.... 

Friday, November 23, 2018

Milling Machines

When I grabbed the Logan lathe, the old Craftsman drill press I got too had been modified a bit.  There is a square tube along one side, and a corresponding square rod with a circular array of bearings....  Cheap mill.  It was fitted with an X - Y table.  Mr. Garcia was resourceful.

I found a Big Joe mill (Taiwanese clone of the Bridgeport circa 1970's) on Craigslist.  Only $2500 asking price.  That's just over a dollar a pound.  Not too bad, only thing listed for a couple weeks.  I went by and looked at it.  Parked under a tarp, a leaky tarp.  Been in the wind for a few months.  Surface rust, not under power.  Nope, 2500 is a bit tall for me.  "What would you offer?"  This is the red zone.  I was dancing on the edge of a cliff.....  Rusty, not sure if it even works...  How bad could it be?  I wasn't too cued in on prices for one, so I shot low: 1400, if you have a forklift.... Sold.

....oh crap.....

Disclaimer:  This blog post outlines how I tackled some projects, while doing my best to be safe, legal, and all-around sensible. Just because I could do these things without crushing any limbs, burning down the house, letting the dogs out, destroying my car, annoying the locals, or running afoul of Town Hall, does not guarantee that you will be able to do the same. While I hope that the material here will prove helpful, you emulate my procedures entirely at your own risk.*

The following are my personal thoughts, for academic study only.

Loaner trailer, and a couple days later, I had it home.  Unloading it was..... a learning experience.  Dragging it through 50 feet of blow sand was a learning experience.  Yes, his dolly works a treat on 3/4 plywood cut into 4x4 sheets, but I had to use a leverPutting the ram and head back on alone was a learning experience I very nearly messed up.  Those engine hoists are fine and all, but the wide foot of a mill tends to step on top of the arms of the hoist, and then tipping is next.  Not a happy place to wind up..... alone.

And then Milling for Dummies 201 class began...

Meet Big Joe

aka Rusty

Impulse buy or decent learning tool?

Needless to say, lots of issues.  Sticky spot in the bed ways, head problems resulting in noise.  I paid a bit for tuition that time.  Good, unbeatable experience.  Most of it what not to do.

Did not get a lot of milling done with that, but I learned a ton with it.  Found out how to go online and dig for manuals, how to bind them, blow up the exploded diagrams on ledger size paper, and using map colors to differentiate assemblies.

Now, I have a different mill, and am in process of retrofitting the DRO...  Life keeps getting in the way but it'll get done.

The New Mill!!  Oh baby!

Old red is a good trailer but I don't recommend it.  A drop deck trailer like this to move with is better.  It's a beauty.  It's worth the rental price not to lift the weight of a machine tool.

Remember Small Tools Inc.?  Excellent bunch of folks there.  They let me find my own shipper, small fee for palletizing, and a classy experience all around.

Moving the mill

I learned a lot about moving heavy equipment through sand.  Rollers, levers, plywood, strategic trees, come-alongs, proper ratchet straps, blocking, dunnage, jack stands to hold up the loose end of the trailer, trailer house pier pads.  All of those are mandatory in soft sand.

Parking brake set, wheels chocked, pad under trailer jack, check.
Pier pads down, and jack stands under the rear trailer lip, check.
Roller sections set to match slope of trailer, check.
2 Safety straps to hold mill to front of trailer, check.  Runaways not allowed!
Slack off one, then the other, alternately to let the mill down the roller deck.
Lever it on the dolly, then lever it down the plywood path, a come along attached to a strategic tree for additional motivation.

Once on the shop floor, solid bar for rollers into it's final position.
It's also useful to mark the center of gravity on the side of the foot.  Push till the front roller is close to C of G, then position the next roller in just behind the front of the foot.  Then push a bit more, tip, roll, tip, roll.  Just be careful with it wanting to tip and spit out a roller.  Wooden wedges can be worth their weight in gold to hold a roller in place.  Two people is best, front and back.  You need lots of run away room, too.  If it's going over, it isn't worth the potential death sentence to try and stop it.  (Imagine where it will fall, and don't be there, ever.  I can't even reach under the mill on it's feet when I drop something there.  I have to get a coat hanger or a magnet to fish it out.  I get goose bumps just thinking about it.) Go over your egress routes till your partner knows without asking how to escape.  Leave yourself an out.  I moved out Big Joe by myself with the rollers and C of G method.  No danger at all.... that time.  I learned to take off the table, lower the knee, and invert the head to lower the C of G to avoid tipping.  Worked a treat.


Study up on current prices for tools and tooling.
Know your subject well.
Develop a strategy.
            Not under power = my offer is 50% off asking right then!
            Obvious rust or damage =  25% minimum off the remainder
Moving is a head scratcher.  Until you have done it a couple times.
I'm not a machine rebuilder, but I don't mind getting dirty.  I don't mind fixing things.  I get to understand how they work that way.  And I pay my "less than 20% list price" rule when some rehab is needed.

Up next..... where to find manuals, old training docs, and how I use them.

*shamelessly stolen from this man.... who I admire and emulate.

Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Quality Drill Press (on the cheap)

Phil, over at Busted Nuckles recently got a drill press.  An old Jet.   That reminded me, I picked up one from CL a few years back.  It went through a restoration of sorts.  It had been in a squirrel-possum outhouse, and they used the open top as a urinal.  The old machinist had passed on, and the shop sat unused and neglected for 10 years or so.  The smell was so bad, that parts of the shop were 30 seconds of holding your breath and dash or you'd be sick and dizzy.  That drill press was the nastiest thing I'd worked on in years. I don't have a picture in the condition I got it in, but this is close....  It came from the same shop.
Everything in that shop looked like this.  Or worse.

I used the electrolysis method of de-rusting the foot, and hooked up the power supply backwards.  I had a beautiful, smooth sacrificial anode, and the foot was looking pretty rough.  Swapped out the leads, and let it run.  It's a reminder when I look at it, that double checking is not an option.

I took the column off, and used flap wheels on the 4 inch grinder to clean it up.  It rang like a bell, and hearing protection was the order of the day.  Car wax keeps it relatively rust free in my un-conditioned shop.

3 years and still pretty.

Custom clamp hole, and a gob of derusting

The table had been drilled in the usual, "not my shop, not my tools" arc of shame.  One was a through hole near the edge, so I embiggened it and threw in a vise grip type clamp.

way prettier than I found it.

If you can find one, a neglected one that hasn't seen too much abuse, they are well worth the efffort. 

New bearings for the spindle, cleaned up the head casting, and repainted. It really needed a lot of work.  New reversing switch, and wiring, new bearings in the motor.  New chuck (it's a goose from China with a Rohm in the wings).  Runout is acceptable (.002 to .003).  
top of the head, looks like I need to do the top of the column again

Check out this guy.  I printed off his posts (in color!!), printed out the manual, and bound them.  That was my reference material for the rebuild / restore.  Took a couple months (like posting on this blog!!)  I figured he'd done an excellent job with pictures and was very detailed on his restoration, why not leverage that on my resto?  It worked a treat.

The reference file on the Clausing Variable

It runs too fast though.  I really need to slow it down.  500 rpm minimum is whipping for a big drill, and this press has some power and flexibility.  Just needs to calm down....

Next project is an overarm for the table to tap with.  Soon...... maybe....


Not healthy dust at all....

This was my arm after I cleaned the column.  I just found the pic.  I remember taking back to back soaks to clean all that...... residue off.

Tuesday, November 20, 2018


I have tremendous respect for you that post every day or every week or every month.  I got covered at work, and at home, and missed all my deadlines. 

And some pics for a guy I read all the time. 

Tooth wear

the other side

Is that a JT3 or something else?                                                                

There is a hole in the center, so you don't need a wedge to remove the arbor.

Sunday, July 8, 2018

Good Grief

It's been 2 months since the last post.  Life sure got busy.  Will advise....

Sunday, May 6, 2018

Out of Order!

This is a bit out of order, but it needs to be said:  Be Patient.  Take it easy!


When I look for tools, I save my searches in EBAY.  I look for sales in Amazon or MSC.  My rule of thumb is to know what a new tool costs and never pay over 20% of that new price.  Less is better.  If I find a suspect "good deal", and I don't know what it would cost new, I dig out the phone and look it up. 

Some things need to be purchased new, but I can't justify paying the retail price.  I have to buy it cheaper.  It's a quest, or a quirk, not sure which.

The Getting Place:

Whenever someone asks, "Where did you get that?", the answer is always, "At the gittin' place!".  And that can be anywhere.  The best place I ever found for deals was the Knippa Tool Trader.  Sadly, it's gone.  And I missed the auction, too.  Dang it!

I have several pawn shops I paw through.  I've gotten to know a few workers and they know what I'm looking for.  They are used to, "what's your bottom dollar?"  "Can you go any lower?"  I've also just waited them out, if they can't move on the price.  The longest I've waited was 8 months for a set of Starrett precision levels.  6 months for a brand new metric Mitituyo micrometer (9.99!!!!!!)  Not all pawn shops will have what you are looking for.  As you frequent them, you'll learn what they get in.  (And messy, dark pawn shops seem to have more stuff at better prices)  You may need to have hand cleaner and paper towels in the vehicle!  That's a win!

Ebay's buy it now/make an offer is a beauty.  I'm not shy in asking for a deal, and the number of them I've gotten surprises me.  I got the itch for some antique center finders, and waited 18 months to find them in a lot.  A Brown and Sharpe and a Starrett.  Patience is required. 

2 Starretts and NO Brown and Sharpe!

I need that tool to finish this job:

This is where your research comes in handy.  I have several sellers spotted that sell inexpensive tools.  Carbidenow, colletking, Discountmachine to name a few.  As you look around, you'll develop your own list. 
CAUTION:  There are sellers on EBAY that will order their part from AMAZON and charge you a couple bucks more than AMAZON would.  I didn't know that, but I've gotten hit with that a couple times.  So, check both sites when you need the tool.  Saving money allows me to buy MOAR!!


There are lots of forums for machinists.  Some are better than others, and some are downright rough rides.  There are guys that will bust you for not knowing the difference between Whitworth and SAE.  Or mistyping a known spec.  1/4 x 21....  If I need to ask someone a question, I'll usually ask it in the vintage/old machinery part of the forum.  Those guys are a bit more patient with me than the younger guys.   Lots to learn and then to practice.  (search: home shop machinist, practical machinist, hobby machinist, etc.)

Youtube has been my goto for learning.  Left side of this blog is my study hall.  I use older machines, so the NYC CNC channel is for entertainment and education on running a shop, not instruction in running a 75 year old tool.  Man they do some cool stuff!

Making Parts:

I finished up the rough machining of the hex block for the 4 C collets this week.  As I neared the finished bore size, I took it really slow:  .005 passes till the collet was a good fit.  It's easy to go too fast and ruin a part, so take it slowly.  Moving slowly and accurately is the key.  I think that's what makes a craftsman.  You only move as fast as you accurately can.  As you become more familiar with your tools, material, and as skill increases, you can move quicker.  Mr. Pete will say it's a 30 minute job, and it'll take me 4 hours.  But that's okay.  Slow and steady will build the skill.

Speed kills:
I can see the reason insert tooling has taken over HSS tool bits.  HSS is good, but you can move more material in the same time with inserts.  Speeds are faster, feeds as well.  But if you haven't built the eye-hand coordination to stop or start where you need to, better to study and learn on HSS than crash with insert tooling. 

Side note:

Front of tool, cutting edge on the right.
I ground my first boring tool for the hex block.  It is basically a left hand turning tool.  3/16 inch HSS ground on typical grinder, cut off with dremel and a lot of water to keep temper.  I was really shocked at how well it cut.  After roughing it out on the grinder, I spent a little time honing the curved edge.  I've seen Adam (Abom79) do that, as well as watching the Oxtoolco series on chip management and cutting tool edge forming.  It works!  It really does.  I put in more clearance than needed, but it worked a treat!

Hopefully, this is a bit of info to make you think.  Give you some ideas on sourcing and the time it takes to make good decisions.  I really want to help out, so let me know if it's of any benefit to you.  Thanks in advance....


Tuesday, May 1, 2018

Large Tools


Turning threads, reducing diameters, squaring stock (yes you can), the queen of the shop is the lathe.  The one tool that can reproduce itself.  It is the workhorse of machines.

Assuming you have a place for your tools, where will you find them?

I have been fortunate to find some good used equipment on Craigslist.org here in the US.  My first lathe was a Logan model 200.  Judging by the serial number, it was produced sometime in 1945.  The old owner used it to build a manufacturing line for some really neat live bait fish hooks.  He passed away over 12 years ago at the age of 92.

I was cruising through CL on my lunch hour, and found this listing.  By the time I got there, 4 other people had contacted them and were prepared to buy the lathe.  These things do go fast.  It was under power and was in really nice shape.  I managed to buy a small 4x6 horizontal bandsaw, Sears 1950's vintage drill press and some other parts and pieces with it.


Logan still makes parts or has parts.  You can find them here:  http://www.loganact.com/

When you find something on CL, be prepared to jump on it quickly.  But make sure you can test or look at it before paying.  I learned a hard lesson on my next lathe.  1943 LeBlond 13 inch Round head.  It was clapped out, and it wasn't under power.  It has seen a hard life.  It still turns well, and makes decent parts, but the bed is worn with a pronounced dip that results in tapered parts.  Especially up near the head.

It's still a decent lathe, but you have to know it's limitations, and work around them.  This lathe was worth maybe half what I paid for it.  I got some original tooling with it, and have found the rest of the parts I wanted for it on Ebay.   Since I haven't been a machinist for my whole life, I'm bound to make mistakes.  But I think of it as tuition.  I'm learning a new skill set, and it's gonna cost something.  If I take a college course, it'll be about the same as what I'm spending for these tools, and I get to keep them!

It's important to think about what size parts you will be making or working on.  There isn't any use buying a massive lathe if you plan on marking tiny parts.

My third lathe was another one I didn't get to test.  HGR (https://hgrinc.com/) Hurry, Grab, Run!!  is a company that buys all kinds of equipment and sells to anyone.  It is a Clausing 13 inch lathe.  It had a lot of issues.  I got a decent price on it, but it still is in pieces as I work on it.  It'll be nice once it's running, but that is still a ways off.  If you want to just get a new lathe and go for it, those are available.  For me, I need to watch the outlay on equipment (budget!!)  And I'm willing to work on my tools to make them function correctly.  I learn how they work and how they've been used.

Another location I can recommend is Small Tools (https://www.smalltools.com/) This man is a class act.  They know their business well.

Craigslist is a good place to find used equipment.  Have the money in hand, and beware.

HGR sells used equipment that has not been inspected or cleaned. It is WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get).

Small Tools Inc. is an equipment reseller that services their equipment before you buy.  Good folks to trade with.

This is pretty much an overview of what I've done.  As time progresses, we'll dig in a lot deeper.

Next up will be milling machines and then, the rest of the tooling needed to make up the shop.

Thanks for stopping by.

AR in South Texas

The LeBlond uses 4 C collets, so why not make a 4C collet block?  I don't think they sell these anywhere.

Saturday, April 28, 2018

I've been working with my hands since childhood.  Dad's projects always needed more than 2 hands, as the oldest son, I was the designated helper.

I learned a lot working with him.  The value of good tools, especially since we rarely had them.  Being frugal with material, and thinking through the project.  Dad was a city employee, and we didn't have much money to work with. 

We moved out in the county when I was 14.  Some of the projects we did before the move:  removing a floor furnace and putting in central heat.  Cleaning several dump truck loads of concrete block, then building a cellar in the back yard with a patio top.    Building a storage / shop building.  Tiling the bathroom.  Reroofing the house.  Moving a smoke damaged duplex to some property and starting a remodel.  Tearing down multiple houses to salvage the wood and fixtures and then pulling tons of nails from this lumber.

I've worked as a farm hand, go-fer, aircraft cleaner and fueler, electrician, industrial engineering helper, broadcast engineer, mobile radio specialist and IT professional.  

In college I got a chance to take Machine Tool Lab.  I got a compliment from a machinist on my projects.  He said I had a talent for it.

Fast forward 25 years, and I'm now able to afford a few tools and have a small space to work.  It's time to work on this skill and keep it under budget.

Welcome to Budget Machining.